Rose, Eucalyptus, Black pepper, and Pine

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The difference between Rose otto and absolute is the method of distillation. Rose otto is steam distilled and the absolute is solvent extraction. Both are extremely concentrated so it is fairly common to find distributing companies selling pre-diluted rose EO, the percentage indicates the rate of dilution. Pure rose is exceptionally expensive so the pre-diluted is a good option for families using it.

Most rose EO is produced in Bulgaria, a whopping 70% of the world’s production comes from there. The production process is labor-intensive, the flowers are harvested in the morning before sunrise and is done by hand. Then the material is distilled the same day. Due to the low content of oil in the rose blooms, rose oil commands a very high price.

This oil is frequently adulterated with other EO’s that have a similar scent such as geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) or palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii).

Rose is still the most used EO in perfumery and other cosmetics. The medicinal qualities of rose in aromatherapy that are most notable help with depression and anxiety (15).

Topical application can be very beneficial for skin conditions and applied around a woman’s lower abdomen can help with menstrual pain (16). As such this oil needs to be avoided by pregnant women. Additionally the pure oil shouldn’t be used in aromatherapy or topically,

because it can bring on nausea and skin irritation, dilution is key.


Topical; Regulation of hormones, aids digestion, reduces spasms and pain, speeds healing of minor cuts and scrapes and prevents infection, reduces the appearance of scars and stretch marks

Diffuser; relieves headaches in very low doses, emotionally calming and uplifting, reduces depression, anger, and grief, allergies, asthma, and nervous tension.


The smell undiluted may induce headaches due to strength. Should also be diluted prior to applying to skin to prevent irritation. Avoid use during pregnancy due to stimulation of uterine contractions.

First aid:

If gotten in eyes allow to water freely and bathe with cool wash cloth.

If contact burn occurs apply flour or cornstarch to absorb excess oil, treat as chemical burn.

If inhalation of the absolute or oil has caused headache or dizziness, move to where there is fresh air.

If the oil has been spilled on a young child’s or baby’s face clean excess oil off and put them in fresh air. If concerned call emergency services.

essential oil benefits

Eucalyptus trees are a very fast growing group of trees, so fast that most of the paper you use and the charcoal for the BBQ are made from the wood of this tree.

There are more than 700 species of eucalyptus, mostly native to Australia, a small number can be found in  New Guinea and Indonesia as well as one in the Philippines.

Despite most species being intolerant of frost some are planted widely in the tropical and temperate world, including the Americas, Europe, Africa, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East, China and the Indian Subcontinent.

On warm days eucalyptus forests are sometimes shrouded in a smog-like mist of vaporized volatile organic compounds (terpenoids); the Australian Blue Mountains take their name from the haze. These trees are also extremely water hungry, to the point that they are sometimes planted to drain swamps in an effort to reduce malaria. Nearly all eucalyptus are evergreen but some tropical species lose their leaves at the end of the dry season. As with other members of the myrtle family, eucalyptus leaves are covered with oil glands. The easily recognised characteristic of eucalyptus species are the distinctive flowers and fruit. The flowers have numerous fluffy stamens which can be white, cream, yellow, pink or red; in bud, the stamens are enclosed in a cap known as an operculum which is composed of the fused sepals or petals or both.

Topical effects range from antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral. It is also good for muscle aches and pains.

In a diffuser it is first class for congestion and loosening phlegm. However it should never be used with babies because it has negative neurological effects, these include but may not be limited to; extreme drowsiness, seizures, and coma.


Topical; Joint pain, Fevers, wounds and burns, acne, improves circulation, bites, blisters.

Diffuser; Asthma, hay fever, colds, flus, general congestion.


DO NOT USE on children under the age of 10. Even minuscule levels of exposure can potentially have neurological impact.

Extreme sleepiness, coma, and seizures have been known to occur in babies.

Undiluted contact with skin may cause burns.

Internal consumption can cause headaches, vomiting, diarrhea, and poisoning.

First aid:

If gotten in eyes or nose, allow to water freely. Rinsing with water will make it worse. If ingested call emergency services immediately and follow their instructions.

If contact burn or rash occurs use flour or cornstarch to absorb excess oil.

If a baby has been exposed call emergency services immediately and explain neurological effects of the oil.

essential oil benefits
black pepper

Pepper comes from a flowering vine that requires very specific growing conditions, preferring rich soil that is moist but not wet, free airflow, and protection from direct sun. Native to South India, the vines are cultivated extensively there as well as Vietnam and other tropical regions. Vietnam is the worlds largest producer at 34% of global production.The vine grows up to 13ft in height, with leaves that are between 2 to 4 inches long. The flowers are produced on hanging spikes 1.6 to 3.1 inches long and get longer as fruit are produced starting at the top of the spike.The vines will start producing fruit (seeds) in their 3rd or 4th year and typically continue producing for 7 years after they start. Harvesting occurs when the first couple of fruit begin turning red, at which point they are removed from the vine and laid out to dry in the sun.The more ripe the fruit at time of processing the milder the pepper.The strongest pepper comes from green pepper which is briefly cooked in hot water before being dried. For white pepper the seeds are allowed to ripen (off vine) and then soaked for a week in water to remove the skins and then dried.Green pepper is also made from unripe fruit but an additional process is added to preserve the colour. Orange and red pepper also have a colour preserving process added.Pink pepper is not true pepper, it comes from either the Brazilian pepper tree or the Peruvian pepper tree, if you have a nut allergy you may be at risk for an allergy to pink pepper because of it’s relation to cashew trees.
Nutritionally true pepper has fairly high concentrations of Vit K, manganese, and iron. Typically you won’t consume enough black pepper to actually supplement your diet but sometimes every little bit counts.Traditional herbal medicine has used black pepper for a number of ailments such as eye problems, toothaches, abscesses, and insomnia amoung others.Current medical research is investigating how black pepper increases absorption of other herbal medicines such as turmeric, it also helps us absorb several essential nutrients like selenium and beta carotene.
The essential oil is VERY concentrated so staying at a 1% or less dilution rate is wise, my article called “Essential oil dilution” can help you learn how to dilute properly. Also essential oils should only be used topically or diffused without proper professional supervision to avoid serious adverse effects. I personally do not recommend diffusing black pepper essential oil because it may irritate the mucus membranes in the face and lungs.


Pain relief, increase circulation, nerve tonic.


Dilution is essential to prevent burns. Unwise to use with topical steroids.Keep oil away from small children for basic safety reasons. No known cautions during pregnancy.

First aid:

If the oil has caused burns use cornstarch or similar to remove excess oil. If a spill has occurred on the face of any individual call emergency services immediately, there is a strong risk of shock occurring. Young children may need help breathing under such circumstances, use your first 2 fingers to push the tongue down to help keep the airway open until an ambulance arrives.

essential oil benefits

Pinus sylvestris is native to Eurasia, ranging as far north as the arctic circle in Scandinavia and as far south as Anatolia and the Caucasus mountains, East to Siberia and all through western Europe. This evergreen tree grows 35 meters in height with the trunk getting as wide as 1m when mature though larger specimens can occur. They typically live between 150 – 300 years, the oldest living specimens are found in Lapland, Finland at 760 years old.Despite the tree being spread across the British Isles as far back as 9000 years ago,it is largely extinct in this region except for a population in Kielder, Northumberland and Scotland.The Irish population started going extinct around 1000 -2000 years ago and it is no longer found there. However it has been re-introduced to these areas to start new populations.Commercially the wood is useful for timber and it’s pulp, in the pre-industrial age it was used to make tar although production has largely ceased.Scotch pine has been planted in the colder regions of North America as well as New Zealand. In the USA it is a favoured species for Christmas trees.


Opens the lungs, antimicrobial, immune stimulant


Never use internally, undiluted oil can cause skin irritation. No cautions for babies or pregnant women.

First aid:

If skin irritation occurs use cornstarch or similar to absorb excess oil. If ingestion has occurred take activated charcoal and call emergency services.

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  1.  October 12, 2019

    Hey there! I’m at work browsing your blog from my new iphone!
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